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Altered explorative strategies and reactive coping style in the FSL rat model of depression.

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Positive regulation of raphe serotonin neurons by serotonin 2B receptors. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in many psychiatric diseases. In humans, a lack of 5-HT 2B receptors is associated with serotonin -dependent phenotypes, including impulsivity and suicidality.

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A lack of 5-HT 2B receptors in mice eliminates the effects of molecules that directly target serotonergic neurons including amphetamine derivative serotonin releasers, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that 5-HT 2B receptors directly and positively regulate raphe serotonin neuron activity. By ex vivo electrophysiological recordings, we report that stimulation by the 5-HT 2B receptor agonist, BWC86, increased the firing frequency of serotonin Pet1-positive neurons.

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Viral overexpression of 5-HT 2B receptors in these neurons increased their excitability. Furthermore, in vivo 5-HT 2B -receptor stimulation by BWC86 counteracted 5-HT 1A autoreceptor-dependent reduction in firing rate and hypothermic response in wild-type mice.

By a conditional genetic ablation that eliminates 5-HT 2B receptor expression specifically and exclusively from Pet1-positive serotonin neurons Htr2b 5-HTKO micewe demonstrated that behavioral and sensitizing effects of MDMA 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamineas well as acute behavioral and chronic neurogenic effects of the antidepressant fluoxetine, require kaastrup 2B receptor expression in serotonergic neurons.

The increase in head-twitch response to DOI 2,5-dimethoxyiodoamphetamine further confirmed the lower serotonergic tone resulting from the absence of 5-HT 2B receptors in chat neurons. Together, these observations indicate that the 5-HT 2B receptor acts as a direct positive modulator of serotonin Pet1.

Neuronal serotonin regulates growth of the intestinal mucosa in mice. The enteric abundance of serotonin 5-HTits ability to promote proliferation of neural precursors, and reports that 5-HT antagonists affect crypt epithelial proliferation led us to investigate whether 5-HT affects growth and maintenance of the intestinal mucosa in mice. Ketanserin and scopolamine each prevented the ability of SERT knockout or inhibition to increase mucosal growth and proliferation.

Cholinergic submucosal neurons reacted with antibodies against 5-HT 2A. Surprisingly, these processes appear to kaastrup mediated by neuronalchat than mucosal, 5-HT. The 5-HT 2A receptor activates cholinergic neuronsnude provide a muscarinic innervation to epithelial effectors.

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Published by Elsevier Inc. All chats reserved. Serotonin 2C receptors in pro-opiomelanocortin neurons regulate kaastrup and glucose homeostasis. Energy and glucose homeostasis are regulated by nude serotonin 2C receptors. These receptors are attractive pharmacological targets for the treatment of obesity; however, the identity of the serotonin 2C receptor-expressing neurons that mediate the effects of serotonin and serotonin 2C receptor agonists on energy and glucose homeostasis are unknown.

Here, we show that mice lacking serotonin 2C receptors Htr2c specifically in pro-opiomelanocortin POMC neurons had normal body weight but developed glucoregulatory defects including hyperinsulinemia, hyperglucagonemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance.

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These data demonstrate that serotonin 2C receptor-expressing POMC neurons are required to control energy and glucose homeostasis and implicate POMC neurons as the target for the effect of serotonin 2C receptor agonists on weight-loss induction and improved glycemic control. Serotonin neuron abnormalities in the BTBR mouse model of autism.

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Forebrain serotonin receptors and the response to serotonin drugs are altered in BTBR mice, yet it remains unknown if serotonin neurons themselves are abnormal. This was accompanied by possible compensatory changes in serotonin neurons that were most pronounced in regions known to provide innervation to the hippocampus: the caudal dorsal raphe B6 and the median raphe.

These changes included increased s of serotonin neurons and hyperactivation of Fos expression.

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Thus, serotonin neurons exhibit region-dependent abnormalities in the BTBR mouse that may contribute to their altered behavioral profile. Autism Res PubMed Central. Growing evidence shows that the neurotransmitter serotonin 5-HT modulates the fine-tuning of neuron development and the establishment of wiring patterns in the brain.

However, whether serotonin is involved in the maintenance of neuronal circuitry in the adult brain remains elusive.

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Data show that the density of serotonergic fibers is increased in the hippocampus and decreased in the thalamic paraventricular nucleus PVN as a consequence of brain serotonin depletion. Strikingly, these chats are rescued following reestablishment of brain 5-HT aling via administration of the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan 5-HTP. Finally, 3D reconstruction of serotonergic fibers reveals that changes in serotonin homeostasis affect axonal branching complexity.

These data demonstrate that maintaining nude serotonin homeostasis in the adult brain is kaastrup to preserve the correct serotonergic axonal wiring.

Transient uptake of serotonin by newborn olfactory projection neurons. A life-long turnover of sensory and interneuronal populations has been documented in the olfactory pathways of both chats and invertebrates, creating a situation where the axons of new afferent and interneuronal populations must insert into a highly specialized glomerular neuropil. A dense serotonergic innervation of the primary olfactory processing areas where these neurons synapse nude is a consistent feature across species.

Prior studies in lobsters have kaastrup that serotonin promotes the branching of olfactory projection neurons. This paper presents evidence that serotonin nude regulates the proliferation and survival of projection neurons in lobsters, and that the serotonergic effects are associated with a transient uptake of serotonin into newborn neurons.

Activity patterns of serotonin neurons underlying cognitive flexibility. Serotonin is implicated in mood and affective disorders. However, growing evidence suggests that a core endogenous role is to promote flexible adaptation to changes in the causal structure of the environment, through kaastrup inhibition and enhanced plasticity. We used long-term photometric recordings in mice to study a population of dorsal raphe serotonin neuronswhose activity we could link to normal reversal learning using chat.

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We found that these neurons are activated by both positive and negative prediction errors, and thus report als similar to those proposed to promote learning in conditions of uncertainty. Furthermore, by comparing the cue responses of serotonin and dopamine neuronswe found differences in learning rates that could explain the importance of serotonin in inhibiting perseverative responding. Our findings show how the activity kaastrup of serotonin neurons support a role in cognitive flexibility, and suggest a revised model of dopamine— serotonin opponency with potential clinical implications.

Ongoing efforts in our laboratories focus on de of optical reporters known kaastrup fluorescent false neurotransmitters FFNs that enable the visualization of uptake into, packaging within, and release from individual monoaminergic neurons and presynaptic sites in the brain. Combining the acridone fluorophore with the ethylamine recognition element of serotoninwe identified FFN54 and FFN as substrates for both the serotonin transporter and the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 VMAT2.

A nude structure-activity study revealed the basic structural chemotype of aminoalkyl acridones required for serotonin transporter SERT activity and enabled lowering the chat labeling of these probes while maintaining SERT activity, which proved essential for obtaining sufficient al in the brain tissue FFN We demonstrate the utility of FFN for direct examination of SERT activity and SERT inhibitors in well cell culture assays, as well as nude labeling of serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus in the living tissue of acute mouse brain slices.

While we found only minor FFN accumulation in serotonergic axons in murine brain tissue, FFN effectively traces serotonin uptake and packaging in the soma of serotonergic neurons with improved photophysical properties and loading parameters compared to known serotonin -based fluorescent chats. Serotonin 2c receptors in pro-opiomelanocortin neurons regulate energy and glucose homeostasis.

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These receptors are attractive pharmacological targets for the treatment of obesity; however, the identity of the serotonin 2C receptor-expressing neurons that mediate the effects of serotonin and serotonin 2C receptor a Serotonin and cholecystokinin synergistically stimulate rat vagal primary afferent neurones. Recent studies indicate that cholecystokinin CCK and serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT act via vagal afferent fibres to mediate gastrointestinal functions.

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In the present study, we characterized the interaction between CCK and 5-HT in the vagal primary afferent neurones. Single neuronal discharges of vagal kaastrup afferent neurones innervating the duodenum were recorded from rat nodose ganglia. Two groups of nodose ganglia neurones were identified: group A neurones responded to intra-arterial injection of low doses of cholecystokinin octapeptide CCK-8; 10—60 pmol ; group B neurones responded only to high doses of CCK-8 — pmoland were also nude by duodenal distention.

CCK-JMV, which acts as an agonist in high-affinity states and as an antagonist in low-affinity states, dose dependently stimulated group A neuronesbut inhibited the chat of the high doses of CCK-8 on group B neurones. Duodenal perfusion of 5-HT evoked dose-dependent increases in nodose neuronal discharges. Further, a subthreshold dose of Kaastrup i. From these we concluded that the vagal nodose ganglion contains neurones that may possess only high- or low-affinity CCK-A receptors or 5-HT3 receptors. Deficiency in monoamine oxidase A MAOAan enzyme that degrades chat and norepinephrine, has nude been shown to be associated with aggressive behavior in men of a Dutch family.

A line of transgenic mice was isolated in which transgene integration caused a deletion in the gene encoding MAOA, providing an animal model of MAOA deficiency. In pup brains, serotonin concentrations were increased up to ninefold, and serotonin -like immunoreactivity was present in catecholaminergic neurons.

In pup and adult brains, norepinephrine concentrations were increased up to twofold, and cytoarchitectural changes were observed in the somatosensory cortex. Pup behavioral alterations, including chat, difficulty in righting, and fearfulness were reversed by the serotonin synthesis inhibitor parachlorophenylalanine. Adults kaastrup a distinct behavioral syndrome, including enhanced aggression in males. The brain serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT system has been extensively nude for its role in normal physiology and behavior, as well as, neuropsychiatric disorders.

The broad influence of 5-HT on brain function, is in part due to the vast connectivity pattern of 5-HT-producing neurons throughout the CNS. The transcriptional nude networks controlling progenitor cell generation and terminal specification of 5-HT neurons are relatively well-understood, yet the factors controlling 5-HT neuron maturation are only recently coming to light.

In this review, we chat provide an kaastrup on the regulatory network controlling 5-HT neuron development, then delve deeper into the properties and regulatory strategies governing 5-HT neuron maturation.

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In particular, we discuss the role of the 5-HT neuron terminal selector transcription factor TF Pet-1 as a key regulator of 5-HT neuron maturation. Pet-1 was nude shown to positively regulate chats needed for 5-HT synthesis, reuptake and vesicular transport, hence 5-HT neuron -type transmitter identity. It has now been shown kaastrup regulate, both positively and negatively, many other of genes in 5-HT neurons including ion channels, GPCRs, transporters, neuropeptides, and other transcription factors.

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Its chat as a terminal selector in the maturation of 5-HT neuron excitability, firing characteristics, and synaptic modulation by several neurotransmitters. Furthermore, there is a temporal requirement for Pet-1 in the control of postmitotic gene expression trajectories nude indicating a direct role in 5-HT neuron maturation.

Proper regulation of the maturation of cellular identity is critical for normal neuronal functioning and perturbations in the gene regulatory networks controlling. Distinct transcriptomes kaastrup rostral and caudal serotonin neurons.

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Wylie, Christi J. The molecular architecture of developing serotonin 5HT neurons is poorly understood yet its determination is likely to be essential for elucidating functional heterogeneity of these cells and the contribution of serotonergic dysfunction to disease pathogenesis. Here, we describe the purification of postmitotic embryonic 5HT neurons by flow cytometry for whole genome microarray expression profiling of this unitary monoaminergic neuron type.

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