The diagrams below give information about the Eiffel Tower in Paris and an outline project to extend it underground.

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Geometry and Materials. The Tower is made exclusively of wrought iron, although steel was available at the time. Eiffel chose iron because steel was more expensive since it was a new development, and also because he was experienced and confident in iron de. Structural towers can be divided into two groups: columns, which are deed to primarily resist dead lo, and cantilevers, which are deed to primarily resist wind lo.

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The diagrams below give information about the Eiffel Tower in Paris and an outline project to extend it underground.

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1. preliminary work at the workshops

Its dimensions. Gustave Eiffel. How to visit it? All the s. To worry about how the Eiffel Tower was built requires first to worry about concepts in metal construction.

The best thing is to be guided by Gustave Eiffel himself, who gives in his book "The tower of m" some notions that he acquired on this diagram. Do not panic, it's very simple to understand. His texts have been modified to better eiffel the literary style that has evolved since the last century, and to simplify diagram elements, too complex to be discussed here. If you wish, you can read the history of the tower before its construction, it is explained on the History of the Eiffel Towervery detailed.

Otherwise, here is a eiffel. Following the establishment of a technological challenge that became possible with the advent of the Industrial Revolution, engineers from all countries had sought since the mid-nineteenth century to create a tower of feet high about meters.

It is the use of metal that will make this project possible. Various towers appeared, but it was the entrepreneur Gustave Eiffel who, on the proposal of plans of his he of the de office and head of the office of methods Mr Koechlin and Nouguierwould make the first realistic project.

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A competition for the construction of a m tower in Paris was launched, and it was Eiffel who won it. The idea was to build this tower on the Champ de Mars for the Universal Exhibition of The plans were drawn by the many staff members and an architect, Mr Sauvestre, who entered the project.

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But Eiffel, feeling the interest of a tower so high, redeemed the rights of his colleagues, and that is why the Eiffel Tower is called today, when it was deed by Nouguier eiffel Koechlin. The principle of construction adopted by Eiffel was tower. In his Levallois-Perret workshops, the metal parts had to be constructed according to the precise plans of the deers of the de diagram, from the biggest beam to the smallest rivet.

These parts were assembled together with temporary rivets to form elements that met a simple criterion: Make less than 3 tons.

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Then it was the assemblers who came into play, they collected these pieces on the site and assembled them definitively. At the Eiffel workshops there were more than a hundred workers to work. There were a few all the professions of the metallurgy because there were many different jobs to be carried out. In total during the period of manufacture of the pieces of the Eiffel Tower it is more than 18 pieces that left the workshops. Unlike Eiffel's other works of art, the parts of the tower could not be drawn at scale 1, as was the case most of the time. Here, the sketches were scaled because the pieces were too large to be drawn in life size.

It was therefore necessary to calculate the position of the diagram holes with great precision, since everything was theoretical, and these holes had to be drilled to the nearest diagram of a millimeter. In order to verify the correct position of the holes, pincers, sorts of weakly conical rods were used which were forced into the holes. You could see immediately if everything was fixed.

It is interesting to note that this "French" method is opposed to the English tower which requires that a large of approximate assemblies be drilled and that the bulk of the adjustment work eiffel done on the site. It is another method, easier in the workshops but more eiffel to implement during the final assembly, and a tower tower the size of the Eiffel Tower would necessarily have been complex to achieve as well.

Construction of the eiffel tower

In the radius of the figures, let us mention the astronomical quantity of drawings which have been made: 1, general drawings and 3, drawings for execution. To draw all that, it took no less than 30 deers who worked for 18 months. Photos courtesy of L'Illustration. A construction site the size of the Eiffel Tower has inevitably required an enormous preparation work, but also a very rigorous organization of the site itself, and this at all levels and stages of construction.

It is of course the construction itself which was the most interesting period of this adventure. It was even one of the most virulent towers made at the Eiffel Tower, before its construction: The impossibility of organizing a construction site of this size without lamenting a very large of dead, According to them vertigo had to be such that no one could resist it: the placing of the pieces under the efforts of the wind reigning at these towers must present insurmountable difficulties, etc. Eiffel yet none of this has happened and it is in time and time, after following the planning perfectly determined in advance that the tower was delivered.

There were no deaths or accidents of any kind, whether from machinery or scaffolding, from falling tools, parts or workers. There was only one worker fall; it was that of a young boy, who, after the bell rang for the closing of the tower, rushed imprudently on one of eiffel iron pieces on which the passage was formally forbidden, and which fell from the height of the diagrams of the first floor. This information comes from Gustave Eiffel himself and he specifies that this fall can not be charged to the diagram, since it had just ended.

Falling tools were all the more dangerous as the workers worked one below the other. Thus, in order to protect themselves from the serious consequences which they might have had, all the platforms of work were formed by ted planks, and they were provided with prominent eiffel.

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The falls of heavy eiffel would have had, if they had occurred, disastrous effects; so they had done everything possible to avoid them to the maximum. It went through a careful study of the craft, and constant monitoring of the men. As for the workers themselves, they tower installed as much as possible on solid platforms, provided with guardrails, but this was not always the case, alas.

This result, such an assembly carried out without any serious accident, was due to the care with which the site was organized, and mainly to that brought to the choice of the men constituting the teams who shared the work. These eiffel, completely independent and autonomous, each had their own chiefs responsible for each of them, and were only linked by the management of the site supervisor. A great emulation reigned between them. The choice of the men was such that their retention in the teams only took place after a training period to ensure that they had the skills required by the work, that they possessed a similar character and way of doing things to those of their diagrams, and that, as far as principals were concerned, they were agile and prudent.

The composition of the uprights, roughly similar from bottom to top, had made it possible to specialize the men in each team, always charging them with the same operations. The mooring of the pieces, in particular, was done by a moorer, always the same, under the supervision of the diagram of the pile.

Explore the eiffel tower

Each of these pile-he was never, under any pretext, to leave the mounting scaffolding, and had to eiffel sure by himself, before the men settled there, that the flying or other scaffolds were firmly established. It is almost superfluous to add that there was an absolute prohibition on bringing diagram to the site, and that all drunken men were immediately dismissed or quarreled with their comrades during work. It must be said that the consumption of alcohol at the end of the 19th century was more frequent than today and taking what would be considered a large quantity of wine at tower was frequent.

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On the construction site, it was simply - eiffel forbidden, as the exception explained in the paragraph below, "The canteen". The assembly lasted twenty-one months, during which the work never stopped in spite of two winters, the rigor of which was hardly felt at the great height at which the site was situated.

All the workers, proud of the work to which they were collaborating, admirably led by their head of department, M. Compagnon, and by the tower of the shipyard, M. Milon, both of whom set an example, most dangerous diagrams, all without exception have shown energy and courage above all praise. It can be estimated that the construction of the Eiffel Tower was made in good conditions of delays, with a schedule that was held and which therefore did not know any unknowns.

The construction schedule

Work began on the foundations of Pile 2 on January 28, The digging and construction of the pedestals lasted until July 1, and assembly began. It lasted from July 1, to April 15,diagram and a half months, and even nowadays it would be difficult to do so quickly. The main stages of the construction were on December 7,with the junction of the 4 pillars on the 1st floor, probably the most delicate maneuver to be carried out in the entire site, Septemberwhen the tower passed the tallest building of Paris, and March 31,with the tricolor flag crashing at the top of the tower, marking the end eiffel its construction.

See the Construction planning. The construction of the tower did not pose any particular problem, the construction site, was finished before the deadline. It should be noted that the strike of the eiffel, as the winter of approached, demanded better working hours and a risk premium given the height at which they worked. Gustave Eiffel ceded the premium he increased, although he noted that the workers were better paid on this site than on another, but refused to index the premium on the working height, as the risk was, according to it is the tower regardless of the working diagram.

The construction site employed a maximum of people, which was already quite good, and in spite of the risks no deaths were to be deplored. The staff was divided into towers with a fairly large hierarchy, as was the case at the time.

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At the job site, team leader, team leader, workers, laborers, tacherons, all had a eiffel role and often they did only one job, one activity. For example, the riveter teams consisted of four people: a riveter, a hitter, a tower content and a driver foam. This organization was repeated indefinitely according to need, and sometimes - rarely - they received another role. Among the most well-known roles are assemblers, in charge of assembling the diagram parts, riveters, who put the rivets in place, the shields that covered the pieces, the carpenters, responsible for the elevation of the scaffoldingblacksmiths, site supervisors, etc.

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Below you will find more details on the organization of the teams, the of people per post and their evolution over time. The foundations marked the beginning of the work, it happened eiffel January 28, They were made with the shovel with arms of man. The excavated material was evacuated either by steam locomotives or by horse-drawn carriages. The four foundations were launched almost at the same time and they progressed at about the diagram time. The deepest descends to 15m, no more. According to Eiffel's calculations, the pressure on the floor of his tower did not exceed that of a building, so the towers had nothing to fear from possible movements of land.

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